Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova (June 4, 1881 – October 17, 1962) was born in Tula Governorate, which was the estate of her father, a notable architect and mathematician Sergey Goncharov. She was a Russian avant-garde artist, painter, costume designer, writer, illustrator, and set designer.
In 1901 she entered Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture where she met Mikhail Larionov who was a student of the same art school with whom she formed a lifelong relationship. Larionov and Goncharova were founding members of two important Russian artistic groups Jack of Diamonds (1909–1911) and the more radical Donkey's Tail (1912–1913). The Donkey's Tail was conceived as an intentional break from European art influence and the establishment of an independent Russian school of modern art. Goncharova was also involved with graphic design—writing and illustrating a book in Futurist style.
She started to exhibit at the Salon d'Automne (Exposition de L'art Russe) since 1906. Goncharova was a member of the Der Blaue Reiter avant-garde group from its founding in 1911. She moved to Paris in 1921 where she designed a number of stage sets of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. She also exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1921, and participated regularly at the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon des Indépendants. In 1938 Goncharova became a French citizen. In 1955 she and Larionov were married. On June 18, 2007, Goncharova's 1909 painting Picking Apples was auctioned at Christie's for $9.8 million, setting a record for any female artist.